The New and the Old Testament: What You Must Know

2 Timothy 3:15-17 – And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

The Bible contains the Word of God and the stories of things that happened from the time of creation up to a particular time after the resurrection of Jesus. It is the book that records the writings of the forerunners of Christian faith and their lifestyles.

It is not Just the Book of records it was inspired by the Holy Spirit and therefore it has four mandates to establish. The first is the doctrine which means teaching, secondly for reproof which means for training, the third is for correction which means it is for guiding, and finally for instruction in righteousness meaning for education in righteousness:

The Bible contains the Old and the New Testaments. The Old Testament has 39 books from and the 27 books from the New Testaments. These two books have the same mission but through different approaches. These two agreements or covenants are from the same God both in both He exhibits different characters.

The two are from the same God but His audiences are not the same people. One is limited to a family among all the heart that is the Old Testament while the other has its focus on the whole world. We shall deal with these differences in detail in this teaching.

The Old Testament and the New Testament represent two different periods and seasons in the history and journey of faith and Christianity. In this article, we shall be looking into the differences between the two seasons or covenants.

Believers today are caught up in between the two systems and that has caused a lot of miss-belief, wrong doctrine, preaching that is obsolete because they have their texts from those that are no more relevant as a result of the change in the covenant or season or system.

The New Testament is a covenant or an agreement between the man and God and the New Testament is also a covenant or agreement between man and God but the focus of the covenants and the scope with the administrator are different from one to another and we shall be looking into that in this article. The two has a meeting point which is very important. The Old is a foundation for the other and it translates into the new one. Let us look into that from the scripture below.

Hebrews 8:1-13 (BBE) – Now of the things we are saying this is the chief point: We have such a high priest, who has taken his place at the right hand of God’s high seat of glory in heaven, 2 As a servant of the holy things and of the true Tent, which was put up by God, not by man. 3 Now every high priest is given authority to take to God the things which are given and to make offerings; so that it is necessary for this man, like them, to have something for an offering.

4 If he had been on earth he would not have been a priest at all, because there are other priests who make the offerings ordered by the law; 5 Being servants of that which is a copy and an image of the things in heaven, like Moses, when he was about to make the Tent, had special orders from God: for, See, he said, that you make everything like the design which you saw in the mountain. 6 But now his position as a priest is higher. Because through him God has made a better agreement with man, based on the giving of better things.

7 For if that first agreement had been as good as possible, there would have been no place for a second. 8 For, protesting against them, he says, See, the days are coming when I will make a new agreement with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; 9 Not like the agreement which I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand, to be their guide out of the land of Egypt; for they did not keep the agreement with me, and I gave them up, says the Lord.

10 For this is the agreement which I will make with the people of Israel after those days: I will put my laws into their minds, writing them in their hearts: and I will be their God, and they will be my people: 11 And there will be no need for every man to be teaching his brother, or his neighbor, saying, this is the knowledge of the Lord: for they will all have knowledge of me, great and small. 12 And I will have mercy on their evil-doing, and I will not keep their sins in mind. 13 When he says, a new agreement, he has made the first agreement old. But anything which is getting old and past use will not be seen much longer.

We need to examine the scripture above carefully to understand this teaching very clearly and with ease. Let us look at verse 6-7 again to start with – “But now his position as a priest is higher. Because through him God has made a better agreement with man, based on the giving of better things. 7 For if that first agreement had been as good as possible, there would have been no place for a second”.

Let me read from another version for better understanding – Hebrews 8:6-7 from King James Version – “But now his position as a priest is higher. Because through him God has made a better agreement with man, based on the giving of better things. 7 For if that first agreement had been as good as possible, there would have been no place for a second”.

Meaning that the Old agreement or covenant or testament as called by different versions of the bible was made first and it came with some faults that have to be fixed and that made God through Jesus Christ to introduce the New Testament, Agreement or Covenant. The question here would be that, is God not perfect? Why having errors in the covenants He made?

The answer is very simple. God is perfect but he works based on plan and purpose. Works with time – Preacher said there is time for everything with God – Ecclesiastes 3 verse 1. Time to be born, time to die, etc.  In verse eleven says “He hath made everything beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart so that no man can find out the work that God made from the beginning to the end.

It is not that God cannot make everything perfect from the time the error came into the original plan of God for mankind, but he has to allow the time to take its course so as to obtain a perfect result. Galatians 4:4-7 says “But when the fullness of the time has come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. 7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ”.

The journey began from the Garden of Eden when a man allowed Satan to change the plan of God for mankind. – Genesis 3:6-10 – And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and a delight to the eyes, and to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit, and gave it to her husband. 7 And their eyes were open and they were conscious that they had no clothing and they made themselves coats of leaves stitched together. 8 And there came to them the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the evening wind: and the man and his wife went to a secret place among the trees of the garden, away from the eyes of the Lord God. 9 And the voice of the Lord God came to the man, saying, Where are you? 10 And he said, Hearing your voice in the garden I was full of fear because I was without clothing: and I kept myself from your eyes.

To cut the story short they were driven out of the garden and that calls for the plan B (Second plan) for God to be able to achieve His original plan for mankind. From that time God has not been pleased with the man until when the man-Jesus came into the earth. Today if you have Jesus in you then you are very well pleasing to God because in Him God is well pleases – Mathew 3:17 and Mathew 17:5.

God has been looking for a man that can reconcile mankind back to himself until He sent Jesus who came born of a woman, the man Jesus who became the mediator between man and God to establish the New Testament. -2 Corinthians 5:19 – To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.

1 Timothy 2:5 – For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

All the laws given to establish the first Testament or agreement were made as a temporary plan until the final plan takes over which was Christ in the picture. Yes! God knew a man has to die to get this work done but the question is who is that man that is ready to do that? The death of Jesus was planned by God from the beginning right from the Garden of Eden. It was not an after taught issue.

1 Peter 1:18-20 – Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,

Everything that happened in the Old Testament was a temporary plan for Christ to take over for God knew He would never find a mortal man that can die to do the work of reconciliation to mankind back to God. For example, He asked Moses to build a Temple and that same Temple symbolizes Jesus’ Temple that He shall build which are the believers. The houses of God were not meant to be a building it is the people that God want.

Likewise the mode of worship which was to go to the temple to meet God, go through a priest to meet God, the man mediator in the name of the chief priest, the sacrifices, the killing of goat to have forgiveness of sin, the sacrifices of blood and all forms of offerings to get cleansing and secure God’s goodwill are not the original will of God they are just a phase to get to the main phase of reconciliation of man to God.

See it here in Hebrews 9:1-14 (BBE) – Now the first agreement had its rules of worship, and a holy order. 2 For the first Tent was made ready, having in it the vessels for the lights and the table and the ordering of the bread; and this is named the holy place. 3 And inside the second veil was the place which is named the Holy of holies; 4 Having a vessel of gold in it for burning perfumes, and the ark of the agreement, which was covered with gold and which had in it a pot made of gold for the manna, and Aaron’s rod which put out buds, and the stones with the writing of the agreement;

5 And over it was the winged ones of glory with their wings covering the mercy-seat; about which it is not possible now to say anything in detail. 6 Now while these things were in existence, the priests went into the first Tent at all times, for prayer and the making of offerings. 7 But only the high priest went into the second, once a year, not without making an offering of blood for himself and for the errors of the people: 8 The Holy Spirit witnessing by this that the way into the holy place had not at that time been made open, while the first Tent was still in being;

9 And this is an image of the present time; when the offerings which are given are not able to make the heart of the worshipper completely clean, 10 Because they are only rules of the flesh, of meats and drinks and washings, which have their place till the time comes when things will be put right. 11 But now Christ has come as the high priest of the good things of the future, through this greater and better Tent, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this world,

12 And has gone once and forever into the holy place, having got eternal salvation, not through the blood of goats and young oxen, but through his blood. 13 For if the blood of goats and oxen, and the dust from the burning of a young cow, being put on the unclean, make the flesh clean: 14 How much more will the blood of Christ, who, being without sin, made an offering of himself to God through the Holy Spirit, make your hearts clean from dead works to be servants of the living God?

Verse two says the first Temple or Tent was made by Moses and of course the second was made by Jesus. Verses 1-7 explained what God told Moses and how He built the Temple based on the pattern God gave him as found in Exodus 25 up to chapter 28.  

Take note of verse 8-10 very important see it here – 8 The Holy Spirit witnessing by this that the way into the holy place had not at that time been made open, while the first Tent was still in being; 9 And this is an image of the present time; when the offerings which are given are not able to make the heart of the worshipper completely clean, 10 Because they are only rules of the flesh, of meats and drinks and washings, which have their place till the time comes when things will be put right.

The above scripture successfully made us see that all the things that God subjected the earlier believer to were a temporary plan of having control over mankind to do His will as it is in the original plan before things are put right according to verse 10 – “Because they are only rules of the flesh, of meats and drinks and washings, which have their place till the time comes when things will be put right”. Hebrews 9:10

See it in King James Version here – “Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances imposed on them until the time of reformation”. – Hebrews 9:10 – And when you read from verse 11 through to verse 14 it is evident that the perfection will come and has come by Jesus Christ.  See it here – But now Christ has come as the high priest of the good things of the future, through this greater and better Tent, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this world,

12 And has gone once and forever into the holy place, having got eternal salvation, not through the blood of goats and young oxen, but through his blood. 13 For if the blood of goats and oxen, and the dust from the burning of a young cow, being put on the unclean, make the flesh clean: 14 How much more will the blood of Christ, who, being without sin, made an offering of himself to God through the Holy Spirit, make your hearts clean from dead works to be servants of the living God?

What is the Old and New Testament?

A testament God made with the Israelites was through Moses and all the people before the time of Jesus were subjected to it. It is called the Old Testament. Meaning it covers from the time of Moses to the time of prophet Malachi.

It also covers part of Mathew to John because they were still practicing the covenant of God through Moses. Notwithstanding the canons grouped them to be part of the New Testament because Jesus has come and it is the beginning of His ministry to establish the New Testament.

Hebrews 9:9-13 (KJV) – Not like the agreement which I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand, to be their guide out of the land of Egypt; for they did not keep the agreement with me, and I gave them up, says the Lord. 10 For this is the agreement which I will make with the people of Israel after those days: I will put my laws into their minds, writing them in their hearts: and I will be their God, and they will be my people:

11 And there will be no need for every man to be teaching his brother, or his neighbor, saying, this is the knowledge of the Lord: for they will all have knowledge of me, great and small. 12 And I will have mercy on their evil-doing, and I will not keep their sins in mind. 13 When he says, a new agreement, he has made the first agreement old. But anything which is getting old and past use will not be seen much longer.

The New Testament was opened at the resurrection of Jesus Christ. That was when Christianity was birthed. Halleluyah. Actually, the New Testament practically began with the Acts of the Apostles. Let us look at the differences between the two Agreements or the covenants

The Differences between the Old and the New Testaments

1. One is Old and the other is New

From the name. The first has become the Old and the New remains the current Testaments. That tells us a lot about how to relate with the two testaments. It is not a man that says one is old and that another is new it was Christ that made one new and the other old – Hebrews 8:13 (BBE) – When he says, a new agreement, he has made the first agreement old. But anything which is getting old and past use will not be seen much longer.

At the point Jesus established the New Testament or agreement the former became Old – Hebrews 9:14 (KJV) – 5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount. 6 ¶ But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises. {Covenant: or, testament}

7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second. 8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: 9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord.

10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people: {put: Gr. give} {in: or, upon} 11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest. 12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more. 13 In that he saith, a new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.

Before Jesus came there was nothing called the Old Testament, it was the Law of Moses. It was called the Scripture – Joshua said this book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth – Joshua 1:8

Jesu said in John 10:34-35 – Jesus answered them, is it not written in your law, I said, ye are gods? 35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;

2. It is a Message of Moses But The New Testament is the Gospel of Jesus

The Old Testament is defined by Law but the New Testament is the opposite. It is Grace. The Old Testament has Moses as the main mediator but the New Testament Has only Jesus as the Mediator. – 1 Timothy 2:5-6 – For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; 6 Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.

The Old Testament is Moses while the New Testament is Christ Jesus. Bust when Jesus came order changed. Jesus made us a minister of the New Testament or agreement not of the Old. There was a major shift from one Testament to another after the resurrection of Jesus Christ – 2 Corinthians 3:5-6 – Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God; 6 Who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. {Giveth life: or, quickened}

John 1:15-17 – John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, this was he of whom I spoke, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. 16 And of his fullness have all we received, and grace for grace. 17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

Verse 17 says that Moses is the Law and the Grace is Jesus. Meaning they are not the something but an opposite of each other – Galatians 4:4 -5 – But when the fullness of the time has come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons

Galatians 5:18 – But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.

You cannot be in the Law and still be in the grace it is not possible. One cannot serve two masters – Mathew 6:24 – No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

 Jesus is the end (Fulfilment or the performance) of the Law – Romans 10:3-5 – For them being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God. 4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. 5 – For Moses described the righteousness which is of the law, that the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

3. The Old Testament is done away with in Christ Jesus

Jesus said He has come to fulfill the Law, and practically by His death and resurrection, he did fulfill the law. Meaning he performed it and no one needs to perform it again. He met the demand of the Law so that no mankind need to meet them any longer. – Mathew 5:17-18 (KJV) –Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. 18-For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

To be fulfilled means to complete, it means to abolish, it means it has been perfected or performed. It also means the new version of it has come. It is like having a constitution of a country renewed they don’t engage that again why? It contains all the good part and the imperfect one redefined into the new constitution.

See what the Bible says here – 2 Corinthians 3:7-16 (KJV) – But if the ministration of death, written and engraved in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: 8 How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious? 9 For if the ministration of condemnation is glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. 10 For even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth.

11 For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious. 12 Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech: {plainness: or, boldness} 13 – And not as Moses, which put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished: 14 But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the Old Testament; which vail is done away in Christ. 15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart. 16 Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away. Take note of the verses written above very carefully you will see words like

If you take note of the verses written above you will discover that the Old Testament and the New Testament are into one another. One is a better version of the other.

From the above scriptures you can have words like ministration of death and the ministration of the spirit, Old Testament done away with in Christ Jesus, you will also see ministration of condemnation and the ministration of righteousness in verses 7-9 – But if the ministration of death, written and engraved in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: 8 How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious? 9 For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. 10 For even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth.

That was how Apostle Paul compared the New Testament and the Old Testament or agreement of Moses on behalf of the Israelites to the agreement made by Jesus on our behalf.

Please Note this very carefully. Should we not read from the Old Testament books? The answer is left to you to decide. My Job is to show you the position of the New Testament and that of the Old Testament in this teaching. 

And to let you know that the Old Testament is not in isolation of the New Testament because the New Testament is a redefined version or updated version of the Old Testament. Therefore for a believer of Jesus Christ to take a doctrine or lifestyle from the Old Testament books you must, I said must check for the validation in the New Testament. Otherwise, you will bring yourself under the bondage that Christ came to set us free from as written in the Old Testament.

Galatians 5:1 – Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

There is no problem in reading from the Old Testament books, of course, a lot of stuff there are revalidated in the New Testament. For example, the closing recitation of our Church ministry that we say at the end of all services is from the Old Testament – Which is revalidated severally in the New Testament – Proverbs 4:18 – But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. Jesu said we are the light of the world – Mathew 5:14, 45. He himself the light of the world – John 1:4-5, Philippians 2:15 says – That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world;

The reading of the Old Testament is not the Problem but how you read, the lens or the eye that you have used. If you read through the eyes of Jesus you will be able to know things that are grace or finished work of Christ compliant and those that have been abolished. A lot of us today are practicing things that have been abolished. Check your church doctrines or beliefs you will be shocked to know that they are the things that Jesus has removed from the way of worship that has been followed in your fellowship or church ministry.

I was shocked last two weeks when I heard of a woman in my neighborhood who told my wife that the reason she did not go to church service that particular Sunday was because she was menstruating and then in their church you are not holy at that time you cannot appear before God in the worship. What? In this dispensation of the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ?

Now you see how many of such we still practice out of ignorance of the understanding of the position of the Old Testament in the Bible. But forming enough these people are not killing a goat for the forgiveness of sin. Meaning the death of Jesus to then was only forgiveness of sin and not removed the ban on women not to worship while breastfeeding or monthly period because the Law of Moose said so and that was what was practice from the time of Moses in Exodus to the time of Malachi.

4. The Old Testament is full of Faults and it is a Fault finding Testament

The Old Testament was full of faults it was not perfect. – Hebrews 8:7-8 – For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second. 8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:

Verse 13 – says “In that he saith, a new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away”.

It is a Fault finding Testament. See the work or the mission of all the Laws of Moses here in – Romans 3:19-22(KJV) – Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. {Guilty…: or, subject to the judgment of God} 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. 21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; 22 Even the righteousness of God which is by the faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

5. The Old Testament is Christ Concealed and the New Testament is Christ revealed

1 Peter 1:9-13 – Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls. 10 Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: 11 Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow.

12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us, they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into. 13 Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ

Look at what verse thirteen above said. It says the Old Testament leaders did not experience some kinds of blessings they prophesied because they were meant for another time not their time. They spoke about things that they will not experience that God has planned for mankind to enjoy that will be made free and available after that Christ is revealed and all through the Old Testament time Christ was not known.

He was concealed. Until the New Testament time that he was revealed. They were actually doing things in the pattern and shadow of what Christ is going to do but they did not know. Every leader either a priest or the kings and the prophets of the Old Testament one way or the other spoke and do things in the spirit of time, pattern and shadow of Christ Jesus.

Let me show you some scriptures about that in the Bible. When Moses lifted up a snake that whosoever looks unto it shall be saved he was doing that in the Spirit of time, pattern and shadow of Christ.  – John 3:13-15 – And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so, must the Son of man be lifted up: 15 that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.

Prophet Isaiah spoke a lot about Jesus including His birth and mission. Jesus reading from His book discovered himself and his mission – Luke 4:17-19 – And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written, 18 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,

David said Jesus will come in the volume of Book – Meaning He will fulfill the whole books written by Moses, the Kings and the Prophets – 5-7 – Many, O LORD my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done, and thy thoughts which are to us-ward: they cannot be reckoned up in order unto thee: if I would declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbered.  6 ¶ Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. {Opened: Heb. digged} 7 Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me,

Jesus himself said the same about Himself – Hebrews 10:4-9 – For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. 5 Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: {hast…: or, thou hast fitted me} 6 In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure. 7 ¶ Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God. 8 Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law; 9 Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.

Jesus said He was the message of the Old Testament or the Law of Moses – Luke 24:25-27 – Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: 26 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? 27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.

He further said again in Luke 24:44 the same thing – Verse 44 – And he said unto them, These are the words which I spoke unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.

From all the scriptures above we can see clearly that Jesus was concealed in the Old Testament but well revealed in the New Testament. John said – 1 John 5:20 – And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life.

In the New Testament Jesus was well revealed to us.

6. The scope is a clear difference among the two

The Old Testament or the Agreement was directly an agenda for the Israelites, It has its focus on the Israelites and not the entire world. God was so concerned about the Israelites and them alone. But the New Testament is a covenant made open to anyone who wants to belong. It is an agenda for the whole world.

This is very simple to drive home. The Israelites are the focus of the writings in the Old Testament. Yet there were many other countries around them, the only thing we hear about them was how they overcame Israelites when God gave them up for destruction because of their misbehaviors. Another time you hear about them will be when they have been destroyed by Israelites and God gave their lands to the Israelites people or tribe.

The Old Testament is full of the record of the members of the Israelites, their priest, kings, prophets, etc.  So we can see that the Love of God at the time of the Old Testament was not meant for all people. It is not inclusive. It’s not meant for the whole world. But the New Testament is inclusive. It is a world or global love –   John 3:16 – For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

See the bold words above. It says whosoever believes. New Testament is all inclusive of the whole world.  God through Jesus till today is still interceding for the lost – He does not hate them – 1 John 2:1-2 – My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: 2 – And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

7. The Ministration of The Spirit

Old Testament has no ministration of the spirit. But the New Testament is powered by the Holy Spirit. This is very direct to drive home. The Old Testament is driven by man as used by God. The man Moses, the Kings and the prophets. But the New Testament is driven by the Lord Jesus through His Holy Spirit. John 7:37-39 – In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, if any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. 38 He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. 39 (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)

Paul said in 2 Corinthians 3: 7-8 while comparing the two covenants that ”But if the ministration of death, written and engraved in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:” 8-How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?

The acid test that you are a child of God is that you are led by the Holy Spirit. Romans 8:14- For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. Every believer has the Holy Spirit – Galatians 4:6 – And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Romans 5:18 – Therefore as by the offense of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.

8. The Old Testament is a shadow of the New.

The Old Testament or agreement or covenant was a shadow of the original to come which was the New Testament. Moses and all the leaders like the Kings and the Prophets were an interim government to allow the time to pass for the takeover of the main government who is Jesus Christ. The New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old Testament.  Hebrews 10:1 – For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

Colossians 2:16-17 – Let no man, therefore, judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days: {in meat…: or, for eating and drinking} {respect: or, part} 17 Which are a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ.

Everything in the Old Testament was pointing to things to come or happen through the ministry of Jesus – For example, the Holiest of all and the Temple with their sacrifices are a pointer to the real salvation Christ will bring to the world. – Hebrews 9:19-24 – For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people, {scarlet: or, purple}

20 Saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you. 21 Moreover he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry. 22 And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. 23 It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:

The Snake of Moses was a pointer to the way Jesus will die on the cross to save the world – John 3:14-15,

The Passover night was a shadow of the deliverance Christ will give to us – 1 Corinthians 5:7 – Purge out, therefore, the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us: {is sacrificed; or, is slain},

The Lord Supper was a shadow of deep intimacy with Jesus – John 6:48-55 – I am that bread of life. 49 Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness and are dead. 50 This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die. 51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eats of this bread, he shall live forever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. 52 The Jews, therefore, strove among themselves, saying, how can this man give us his flesh to eat?

53 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. 54 Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 55 For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed.

Just to mention a few among the activities in the Old Testament and how they relate to what Jesus has fulfilled.

The appointment of the chief priest and the priest was a shadow of Jesus the Chief priest and us the priest after him – Hebrews 3:1 – Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;

Revelation 5:9-10 – And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou was slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; 10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

9. The Original Character of God.

The Old Testament does not portray the good image of God. The Character of God from the beginning which was Love was not well expressed in the Old Testament time. Every good thing it is God and every bad thing it is also God. That was why Hannah said … The LORD kills and makes alive: he brings down to the grave, and brings up. 7 The LORD makes poor and makes rich: he brings low, and lifts up. – I Samuel 2:6-7.

Can you imagine what Hannah said above? And that in verse 6 is what we always quote especially at funeral services and that in verse7 when comforting ourselves when there is a loss of any kind. That was a wrong image of God. Now you can you see the imperfect nature in the Old Testament that is just one among many other instances.  

But in the New Testament Jesus corrected that wrong impression about God – John 10:10 – The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I have come that they might have life and that they might have it more abundantly.

Verse 30 he says – I and my Father are one. Do not say we kill we only make to live, Do not ask us to kill we only give life, do not say we lead into temptation we do m=not we give grace to overcome temptation. When it is evil it is not us…

Apostle James said – James 1:16-17 – Do not err, my beloved brethren. 17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning.

That is why following the Old Testament without checking its validity in the New Testament will make you see God as wicked and bad person who can kill and then many have been asking him in prayer to kill their enemies. It will never be answered, otherwise the scripture is broken – John 10:34 – Jesus said … “and the scripture cannot be broken;”

God is loving and has perfect love as seen today through His grace in Christ Jesus unlike in the Old Testament time that His love was not perfect – He that loves not knows not God; for God is love. – 1 John 4:8, God is caring, and longsuffering unlike in the Old Testament time. He does not want the death of the sinners unlike the Old Testament time – 2 Peter 3:9 – The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

God through Jesus Christ does not speak through prophets unlike the Old Testament time but speaks through His Son who in turn speaks to us through His Spirit in us– Hebrews 1:1-2 – God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, 2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.

Running after prophets in the class of Elijah and Elisha of today etc. will run you into the bondage of the Law. Elijah was a prophet under the Law of Moses and likewise all other Prophet including Malachi whatever they taught and preached are reformed in Christ Jesus. Stop allowing spiritual manipulation to enslave you in the name of Bible. Bible is not our message it is Christ.

Jesus said in John 16:12-14 – I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. 14 He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.

He does not ask for anything from anyone like fasting or money or whatever to do anything for anyone as it was in the Old Testament time. He has freely given us everything out of his love. – Ephesians 1:3 – Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: {places: or, things}

You may be asking just like that yes! That is the simplicity of the gospel of Christ. 2Co 11:3 –But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. (KJV)

Peter confirmed it that Paul was right – 2 Peter 1:3-4 – According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue: 4 Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust

Everything in Christ Jesus is free and it is free to access by Faith only. Whatever thing you did to access it is left to you, and it does not have any effect on God it is the only faith that does. Romans 8:32 – He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?

10. The Two Testaments two different kinds of people in operation

In the Old Testament time, there were no Christians. Christianity is a word used for a group of people that are followers of Christ. This first happened or mentioned at Antioch in the book of Acts chapter 28.

They were not brethren, they are not children of God but the people of God and servants of God. Whereas in the New Testament we are sons of God, we are brethren and chosen generation with royalty.

Hebrews 2:10-11 – For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings 11 For both he that sanctifies and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,

1 John 3:1-2 – Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knows us not, because it knew him not. 2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.

John 1:11-12 – He came unto his own, and his own received him not. 12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: {power: or, the right, or, privilege}

Romans 8:15 – For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

The Old Testament People were believers of God through Moses, they were disciples of Moses. They fight for the obedience of the Law of Moses and that was why they rejected Jesus and kill him because he was breaking the laws of Moses. but the New Testament believers are believers of Through Jesus.

In John chapter 9 from verse 1 to the end when the blind man was being interrogated from verse 27 hear what they said – He answered them, I have told you already, and ye did not hear: wherefore would ye hear it again? Will ye also be his disciples? 28 Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are Moses’ disciples. 29 We know that God spoke unto Moses: as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is. 30 The man answered and said unto them, why herein is a marvelous thing that ye know not from whence he is, and yet he hath opened mine eyes.

Conclusion

The New Testament or the Covenant or the agreement as different versions o the Bible may refer to it is the perfect, latest, spiritual and has the current mind of God. It has the life of God unlike the Old Testament – John 6:63 – It is the spirit that quickened; the flesh profited nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are the spirit, and they are life.

It is the Testament of the believers in Christ Jesus – 2 Corinthians 3:5-6 – Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God; Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. {Giveth life: or, quickened}

Note: All the Bible quotes are either from the Basic Bible English version or Old and New King James version.

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